Harvard Method Bibliography Internet Citation

To cite a news article from an electronic database

In text

If the article has a named author:

(Pianin 2001)

List of references

Pianin, E 2001, 'As coal's fortunes climb, mountains tremble in W.Va; energy policy is transforming lives', The Washington Post,  25 February, p. A03, accessed March 2001 from Electric Library Australasia.

Include the following information:

  • author (if available)
  • year of publication
  • article title (between single quotation marks)
  • newspaper title (in italics)
  • date of article (day, month, page number—if given—and any additional information available)
  • accessed day month year (the date you accessed the items)
  • from name of database
  • item number (if given)


To cite a news article without a named author

In text

No named author:

(New York Daily Times1830) 

The article can also be discussed in the body of the paragraph:

An account of the popularity of the baby tapir in The Independent (2013) stated that ...

List of references

If there is no named author, list the article title first.

‘Amending the Constitution’, New York Daily Times, 16 October 1851, p. 2, accessed 15 July 2007 from ProQuest Historical Newspapers database.

'Baby tapir wins hearts at zoo', The Independent, 9 August 2013, Accessed 25 January 2014, .

Baby tapir wins hearts at zoo

Baby tapir wins hearts at zoo


To cite an online news article

In text

Cite the author name and year:

(Coorey 2007)

List of references

Coorey, P 2007, ‘Costello hints at green safety net’, Sydney Morning Herald, 10 May, accessed 14 May 2012, . 

While a URL for the article should be included, if it is very long (more than two lines) or unfixed (from a search engine), only include the publication URL:

Holmes, L 2017, 'The woman making a living out of pretending to be Kylie Minogue', The Daily Telegraph, 23 April, accessed 22 May 2017, .

What are electronic sources?

Electronic sources include web sites, emails, films, television programs, podcasts and radio broadcasts, online journals and eBooks.

How do I cite them?

The Harvard System requires two elements: in-text citations throughout your assignment, and a list of references at the end.

1. In-text citations

Include three pieces of information about a source within the text of your work:

  • the name of the author or authors
  • the year of publication
  • the page number (if available; many electronic resources don’t have pages)

2. List of references

At the end of your text, you must include a List of References, a list of all the sources of information you have used to research your assignment.

What information should I include?

Referencing electronic resources can be confusing - it's difficult to know which information to include or where to find it. As a rule, provide as much information as possible concerning authorship, location and availability.

Electronic citations require much of the same information as print sources (author, year of publication, title, publisher). However, some extra details are required:

  • identify that you accessed the source in an electronic format
  • provide an accurate access date for online sources (that is, identify when a source was viewed or downloaded).
  • provide the location of an online source (for example, a database or web address)

Some documents are published in both paper and electronic formats. You should cite according to the format you accessed. Unlike printed material, internet sources can easily be changed, or disappear altogether, so full and accurate citation information is essential.

See next: How do I cite?

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